Verhoeff algorithm

Verhoeff algorithm is a checksum formula for error detection developed by the Dutch mathematician Jacobus Verhoeff and was first published in 1969. It was the first decimal check digit algorithm which detects all single-digit errors, and all transposition errors involving two adjacent digits, which was at the time thought impossible with such a code.

Verhoeff had the goal of finding a decimal code—one where the check digit is a single decimal digit—which detected all single-digit errors and all transpositions of adjacent digits. At the time, supposed proofs of the nonexistence of these codes made base-11 codes popular, for example in the ISBN check digit.

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