Panama (cryptography)

Panama is a cryptography primitive which can be used both as a hash function and a , but its hash function mode of operation has been broken and is not suitable for cryptographic use. Based on , it was designed by and Craig Clapp and presented in the paper Fast Hashing and Stream Encryption with PANAMA on the Fast Software Encryption (FSE) conference 1998. The cipher has influenced several other designs, for example and SHA-3.

The primitive can be used both as a hash function and a . The stream cipher uses a 256-bit key and the performance of the cipher is very good reaching 2 cycles per byte.

Hash function

{{Infobox hash function |name = Panama (hash) |digest size = 256 bits |related to = |certification = |key size = |security claim = 2128 (collision resistance) |state size = 8736 bits |block size = 256 bits |cryptanalysis = Panama hash collisions can be generated in 26 time.

At FSE 2007, Joan Daemen and Gilles Van Assche presented a practical attack on the Panama hash function that generates a collision in 26 evaluations of the state updating function.

Guido Bertoni, , Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche, at NIST’s 2006 Second Cryptographic Hash Workshop, unveiled a Panama variant called RadioGatún. The hash function workings of RadioGatún does not have the known weaknesses that Panama’s hash function has. In turn, RadioGatún inspired the new cryptographic standard SHA-3.

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