ecash was conceived by David Chaum as an anonymous cryptographic electronic money or electronic cash system in 1983. It was realized through his corporation and used as system at one US bank from 1995 to 1998.



Chaum published the idea of anonymous electronic money in a 1983 paper; eCash software on the user’s local computer stored money in a digital format, cryptographically signed by a bank. The user could spend the digital money at any shop accepting eCash, without having to open an account with the vendor first, or transmitting credit card numbers. Security was ensured by public key digital signature schemes. The blind signatures achieved unlinkability between withdrawal and spend transactions. Depending on the payment transactions, one distinguishes between on-line and off-line electronic cash: If the payee has to contact a third party (e.g., the bank or the credit-card company acting as an acquirer) before accepting a payment, the system is called an on-line system. In 1990, Chaum together with proposed the first off-line e-cash system, which was also based on blind signatures.


Chaum started the company in 1990 with “ecash” as its trademark. He raised $10 million from and by 1997 was its chairman. Similar to credit cards, the system was free to purchasers, while merchants paid a transaction fee. After a three-year trial that signed up merely 5,000 customers, the system was dissolved in 1998, one year after the bank had been purchased by , a large issuer of credit cards.

DigiCash went bankrupt in 1998, despite flourishing electronic commerce, but with credit cards as the “currency of choice”.

DigiCash was sold to eCash Technologies, including its eCash patents.

In 2000 eCash Technologies sued, alleging trademark infringement and unfair competition. counterclaimed that eCash Technologies’ trademark registration was fraudulently obtained, because it failed to disclose’s registration of the “” domain name to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. The court rejected’s counterclaim saying a trademark applicant must disclose a third party’s rights only if they are “clearly established.” The court argued because the “mere registration of a domain name does not confer trademark rights, let alone “clearly established” rights, ECash Technologies had no duty to disclose defendant’s registration of the “” domain name to the PTO, however eCash Technologies subsequently went bankrupt and the domain “” remained in possession of the original owner.

In 2002 eCash Technologies was acquired by , currently known as . As of 2015, the term eCash is used for the digital cash that can be stored on an electronically sensitive card including online or alternative payment portals and mobile applications. In 2016, Due Inc was granted the “ecash” trademark.

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